Cedar Creek
Ecosystem Science Reserve


Insects of Cedar Creek

Order HYMENOPTERA

Family ICHNEUMONIDAE

(Ichneumonids)

(Table of Species)

(Subfamily Diagnostics)

The Ichneuomonidae (3322 described NA spp + 5000 undescribed) is a diverse family of parasitoids. They are generally larger and more colorful than Braconids. They have two recurrent veins in the forewing and many have an areolet.  Modest numbers of individuals are routinely swept from nearly all of CCESR's old fields. However, many species are confined to woodland where less serious collecting has been conducted. All are parasitoids of other insects (primarily Lepidoptera) and a few attack spiders. Several are Hyperparasites. John Luhman has provided invaluable assistance in determining Cedar Creek material. Nearly 200 species have been collected, but knowledgable collecting might possibly double this number. This Family will be discussed by subfamily.  The order is not phylogenetic but rather ranges from small uncommon groups to larger speciose subfamilies. Subfamilies that are commonly collected are in Bold Type.

LYCORININAE
The Lycorininae attack small Lepidoptera larvae. A single specimen of Toxophoroides sp has been collected.

ORTHOPELMATINAE
The Orthopelmatinae are small ichneumonids parasitic on gall-forming Cynipids. Orthopelma (occidentale) has been collected. Most of these species are parasitic on gall-forming Cynipids on Rosa (Diplolepis) and Rubus (Diastrophus).

ORTHOCENTRINAE
The Orthocentrinae are small dark ichneumonids with bulging face. They attack Sciaridae and Mycetophilidae (Fungus Flies). Stenomacrus and Orthocentrus? have been collected.

TERSILOCHINAE
The Tersilochinae are small ichneumonids that attack soil-inhabiting Coleoptera larvae. Three uncommonly collected genera are Pectinolobus, Tersilochus? and Diaparsis?.

MICROLEPTINAE (=OXYTORINAE)
The Microleptinae are an uncommonly collected group of tiny ichneumonids. Genera collected include Pantisarthrus, Entypoma, Helictes?, Oxytorus?, and Eusterinx.

MESOCHORINAE
The Mesochorinae are Hyperparasitic on ichneumonids, braconids, and tachinids in Lepidoptera? None collected, but likely present. Mesochorus is a common genus.

XORIDINAE
The Xoridinae are large black and orange species that attack wood borers. Xorides (stigmapterus) and Odontocolon (dichrous, vicinum) have been collected. They occur in woodland.

ACAENITINAE
The Acaenitinae are large colorful species that attack wood-boring Coleoptera and Sesiid larvae. Arotes (mellus?) and Spilopteron (formosum, vicinum) have been collected. They occur in woodland.

OPHIONINAE
The Ophioninae are pale brown insects with large ocelli routinely attracted to light. They are internal parasites of Lepidoptera larvae. Commonly collected genera include Ophion spp, Enicospilus, and Thyreodon?.

ANOMALONINAE
The Anomaloninae can be distinguished by their slender abdomen and reticulated propodeum. They are internal? parasites of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera larvae. Therion spp are collected with fair frequency in CCESR old fields. Other genera collected include Trichionotus, Erigorgus, Barylypa, Aphanistes, Anomalon, Gravenhorstia?, and Habronyx?. IDs of several of these questionable.  Heteropelma datanae is a large black species with orange antennae that attacks sphinx moth larvae.

CREMASTINAE
The Cremastinae are internal parasites of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera larvae. Genera collected include Cremastus, Temeleucha, Pristomera, and Trathala.

PORIZONTINAE (=CAMPOPLEGINAE)
The Porizontinae are small black-faced ichneumonids with slender, flattened abdomen. They are internal parasites of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Symphyta larvae. This diverse subfamily is routinely taken in CCESR old field sweeps and also in woodland. Genera collected include Campoplex, Casinaria, Dusona, Cymodusa, Campoletis, Diadegma, Hyposoter, Echthronomas, Campoctonus, Phobocampe, Microcharops, Callidora, Bathyplectes, Sinophorus, and Olesicampe.

DIPLAZONTINAE
The Diplazontinae are small, colorful ichneumonids with 3-toothed mandibles. They are internal parasites of Diptera larvae (esp. Syrphidae). Commonly collected genera include Diplazon, Promethes, Sussaba, Homotropus, Woldstedtia, Xestopelta?, and Syrphoctonus.

METOPIINAE
The Metopiinae have a bulging shield-like face. They are internal parasites of Lepidoptera larvae and pupae (esp. leaf-rollers). Infrequently collected genera include Trieces, Triclistus, Exochus, Hypsicera, Periope, Colpotrochia, and Chorinaeus.

SCOLOBATINAE (=CTENOPELMATINAE)
The Scolobatinae are internal parasites of Symphyta larvae. Most occur in woodland?  Genera collected include Pantorhaestes, Notopygus, Hyperbatus, Sympherta, Ctenopelma, Otlophorus, Lethades, and Nanium.

TRYPHONINAE
The Tryphoninae have long hairs lining the margin of the clypeus and the females often have stalked eggs projecting from the tip of their abdomen. They are internal? parasites of Lepidoptera and Symphyta larvae. They are routinely taken in small numbers from CCESR old fields. Genera collected include Phytodietus, Netelia, Neliopisthus, Polyblastus, Erromenus, Ctenochira, Exenterus(on Diprion simile), Tryphon, Eclytus, and Exyston.

BANCHINAE
The Banchinae are abundantly swept from Cedar Creek old fields. Most are medium to large-sized and colorful. A lobe of the mesopleuron extends over the hind coxa. They are internal parasites of Lepidoptera larvae and pupae. Most abundant are perhaps six species of Lissonota. Other genera collected include Glypta, Arenetra, Spheledon, Apophua, Exetastes, Ceratogastra and Banchus.

EPHIALTINAE (=PIMPLINAE)
The Ephialtinae are medium to large-sized, often black and orange species with diverse habits. Some are external parasites of concealed Lepidoptera larvae, others are parasitic in Lepidoptera cocoons, wood-boring Coleoptera larvae, spider eggs and adults, and concealed Aculeate pupae. Most occur in woodlands. Itoplectis conquisator is Hyperparasitic on other ichneumonids in Lepidoptera larvae. Other genera collected include Scambus, Coccygomimus, Acrodactyla, Acropimpla, Acrotaphus, Calliephialtes, Delomerista, Iseropus, Dolichomitus, Oxyrrhexis, Podoschistus, Synarachna, Tromatobia, Rhysella, Megarhyssa, and Theronia.

GELINAE (=CRYPTINAE)
Most members of this large subfamily have a convex clypeus and 5-sided areolet in the forewing. Many species of Gelisare wingless. Habits are diverse. Many are external parasites of Lepidoptera in cocoons, others are parasitic on Symphyta, spiders, Diptera larvae and pupae, or wood-boring Coleoptera larvae. Many are Hyperparasites. Roughly 37 genera have been collected. They include: Dichrogaster, Ethelurgus, Gambrus, Gelis, Isdromus, Mastrus, Mesoleptus, Phygadueon, Pycnocryptus, Endasys, Cubocephalus, Ischnus, Polytribax, Aritranis, Trichosis, Mesostenus, Idiolispa, Aclastus?, Acrolyta, Agrothereutes, Apsilops, Arotrephes, Atractodes, Ceratophygadeuon, Echthrus, Medophron, Messatoporus, Parmortha, Pleolophus, Polyaulon, Pygocryptus, Rhytura, Schenkia, Stibeutes, Stilpnus, Theroscopus, Itamoplex, and Acroricnus.

ICHNEUMONINAE
The Ichneumoninae are generally large and colorful with a truncate clypeus exposing the labium and having a 5-sided areolet in the fore wing.. They are internal parasites of Lepidoptera larvae and pupae and are routinely collected in modest numbers from CCESR old fields. Roughly xx species in 30 genera have been collected. Most, including the large genera Pterocormus(ca 18 spp) and Cratichneumon (ca 13 spp) are most common in woodland. Other genera collected include: Phaeogenes, Ctenichneumon, Rubicundiella, Eutanyacra, Colpognathus, Centeterus, Dicaelotus, Diadromus, Neotypus, Spilichneumon, Thyrateles, Vulgichneumon, Stenobarichneumon, Barichneumon, Homotherus, Aoplus, Neamblymorpha, Obtusodonta, Diphyus, Tricholabus, Hoplismenus, Stenichneumon, Orgichneumon, Platylabus, Asthenolabus, Ichneumon, Protichneumon and Trogus.

LINKS
Hosts of Ichneumon Wasps by Charles C Porter

REFERENCES
Townes, Henry (1969).  The genera of Ichneumonidae.  Memoirs Amer. Ent. Institute. Numbers 11, 12, 13.


webmaster@cedarcreek.umn.edu Last updated May, 2000