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Citation. Foster, S. A.; Cresko, W. A.; Johnson, K. P.; Tlusty, M. U.; Willmott, H. E. 1996. Patterns of homoplasy in behavioral evolution. Pages 245-269 in M. J. Sanderson and L. Hufford, eds., Homoplasy: The recurrence of Similarity in Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego.   [1623  CC]

Introduction. During the first six decades of this century, ethologists focused attention on the study of pattern and process in the evolution of behavioral phenotypes. Drawing on the seminal works of C. O. Whitman (1899) and O. Heinroth (1910, 1911), these scientists examined both present adaptive value (Tinbergen 1964; Bateson and Hinde 1976) and change in behavior patters over time (Lorenz 1950; Hinde and Tinbergen 1958). Research examining historical aspects of the evolution of behavior could be subdivided into the use of behavioral phenotypes to reconstruct phylogenies and the overlaying of behavioral phenotypes on phylogenies that had been constructed using other kinds of characters (usually morphological). Both approaches provided surprising insights into the ways in which behavioral characters evolve, and the phylogenies based upon behavioral characters often matched those constructed using morphological characters, suggesting that behavioral phenotypes evolved in much the same way as did other kinds of characters (Lorenz 1950; Hinde and Tinbergen 1958; Mayr 1958; Bateson and Hinde 1976; McLennan et al. 1988).

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