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Citation. Mitchell, M. J. 1960. A resurvey of the breeding-bird population in an upland oak forest on the Anoka Sand Plain. Audubon Field Notes 14(6):488-489.   [1436  CC]

Abstract. Ecological succession and the subsequent development of biotic communities is one of the basic principles of ecology. Botanical succession has been much more successfully studied than has animal succession because of the mobility of animals. With the development of enumerating techniques it has been possible to ,. study plant and animal relationships where territorialism is well defined for at least part of the year. These census methods work best in the study of birds,maintaining "type A" territories as they are defined by Nice (1941 Amer. Midl. Nat. 26:441-487). Most passerine birds of upland communities such as the one described subsequently hold this type of territory.

Keywords. breeding birds, upland oak, "type A" territories

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