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Citation. Abraham, R. L. 1974. Vocalizations of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The Condor 76(4):401-420.   [1229  CC]

Abstract. Qualitative descriptive information on both vocal and visual displays of waterfowl is abundant (e.g., Heinroth 1910, 1911: Lorenz 1953; Weidmann 1956; Johnsgard 1965; McKinney 1965a, 1969, 1970, and quantitive data are available for visual displays of a few species of ducks, (e.g., Weidmann 1958; Weidmann and Daily 1971; Simmons and Weidmann 1973; Johnsgard 1960; McKinney 1961, 1965b; Dane et al. 1959; Dane and van der Kloot 1964; Field 1970). But quantitative data on vocal displays of adult waterfowl are conspicuously absent. Sonographic illustrations are available for selected vocalizations of several species of adult ducks (Frith 1967; Johnsgard 1971), but to my knowledge, no one has attempted to record and analyze the full vocal repertoire of a single species. Since the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the most studied waterfowl, a quantitative description of the vocal repertoire of this species is a logical place to start. My objectives were to review and extend the qualitative descriptions of the vocal displays of the mallard already available (primarily, Lorenz 1953; Weidmann 1956), to provide quantitative information on daily and seasonal variations in frequency of selected vocalizations in individuals and groups, and to measure the variablitiy of specific vocalizations, both within and between individuals. This information is intended to provide a basis for experimental and comparative investigation of the functions and evolution of Anatid vocalizations.

Keywords. mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, vocalizations, function, evolution, vocal display

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