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Citation. Johnson, N. C.; Pfleger, F. L. 1992. Vesicular-Arbuscular mycorrhizae and cultural stresses. Pages 71-99 in Bethlenfalvay, G., et al., eds., VA Mycorrhizae in Sustainable Agriculture. ASA/SSSA special publication No. 54. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.   [1086  LTER]

Summary. Modern farming practices have been developed to maximize crop production. These practices overtly manage plants through direct manipulation of soils, cultivars, and pests. However, it is increasingly obvious that while farming practices overtly manage crops, they also covertly manage many other components of agroecosystems. For economic and environmental reasons, the National Research Council (NRC, 1989) recommended sustainable farming options to "reduce costs, protect health and environmental quality and enhance beneficial biological interactions that must be considered in the design of sustainable systems.

Keywords. VA-mycorrhizae, sustainable farming

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