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Citation. Cheng, K. M.; Burns, J. T.; McKinney, F. 1982. Forced copulation in captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): II. temporal factors. Animal Behaviour 30:695-699.   [1019  LTER]

Abstract. A study of temporal trends in forced copulation was conducted in flight-pens with eight pairs of captive mallards to test the hypothesis that forced copulation is an evolved breeding strategy in waterfowl. Significantly more forced copulation attempts were directed at females during egg-laying than during the non-laying period preceding laying, and few forced copulations occurred after the laying of the last egg of the clutch. Most forced copulations occurred in the morning when the females were leaving the nests after egg-laying. Thus, forced copulations occurred at times when fertilization was most likely to result, supporting the insemination strategy hypothesis.

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