Cedar Creek
Ecosystem Science Reserve


Insects of Cedar Creek

Order HOMOPTERA

Family CICADELLIDAE

(Leafhoppers)

(Table of Species)

Nearly 130 species of Leafhoppers (2507 NA spp) have been collected at Cedar Creek. Most effort has been on field inhabiting species, and the predominantly woodland foliage feeding Typhlocybinae have been relatively ignored. A useful, though somewhat outdated reference is The Leafhoppers of Minnesota (1942) by John T. Medler. More technical is the Cicadellidae of Canada (1952) by Bierne. This group is discussed by subfamily.  I thank Andy Hamilton for providing a number of corrections.  However, doubtless many errors still remain.

MACROPSINAE
This subfamily contains two genera, Macropsis (?bicolor,erythrocephala, suturalis, viridis?) and Oncopsis (?minor, pruni, sobrius, flavidorsum?) that are almost exclusively feeders upon woody trees and shrubs, especially willow, aspen, and alder.

IDIOCERINAE
Species of Idiocerus (?alternatus, suturalis, lunaris, pallidus) feed on the foliage of woody species (especially aspen) in woodlands.

AGALLIINAE
Aceratagallia sanguinolenta is a common species collected throughout the summer from most of the fields on the area. It appears to be most common in xeric weedy fields. Aceratagallia uhleri? is considerably less common. Two infrequently collected species in this subfamily are Agalliopsis novella and Agallia quadripunctata.

PENTHIMIINAE
The only member of this subfamily is Penthimia americana. It is a rare species that resembles a spittle bug. I have found it in some numbers on choke cherry.

GYPONINAE
This subfamily contains the genera Gyponana (3 spp), Gypona (1 sp), Ponana (3? spp), and Prairiana(1 sp). The first three genera probably feed on woody plants primarily in brushy areas?Ponana scarlatina and P. pectoralis appear confined to woodland. Both Gyponana salsa (=cana) and Gypona contona (=melanota) has been collected from fields. Prairiana cinerea/kansana has been collected in small numbers from a spectrum of fields. It appears to be most common in mesic weedy fields.

DORYDIINAE
Dorycephalus platyrhynchus (=Dorycara minor?) is a flattened brown duck-billed species that is fairly common in early summer species in Poa fields. Hecalus viridis is a common species in a spectrum of fields. It is reported to feed upon Stipa spartea but has been taken in fields lacking this grass. Less common is Hecalus major, reported to feed upon Calamagrostis. Neohecalus magnificus  is a specialist on prairie slough grass, Spartina pectinata. It occurs in Helen Allison Savanna (HAS).

LEDRINAE
Xerophloea peltata (=viridis) has only been collected in late summer from prairie.

APHRODINAE
Two uncommon species of Aphrodes are Aphrodes flavostrigatus (=albifrons) andAphrodescostatus. Males look much different than females in these species. Even less common is Stroggylocephalus mixtus. They are taken sparingly in mesic weedy fields and are reported to be root feeders. Sometimes included in this subfamily is the more fragile and colorful Xestocephalus (pulicarius, superbus).

AMBLYCEPHALINAE
Cuerna lateralis is a relatively uncommon species of brush prairie. Neokolla hieroglyphica can be abundant on Solidago canadensis/gigantea clones in old fields. Graphocephala coccinea is a vivid green-and-red striped woodland species frequently seen on hazel. Perhaps five species of the genusDraeculacephalahave been collected. They are primarily grass/sedge feeders in marshy situations. One species D. minor? occurs with some regularity in a spectrum of field types. Tentative IDs for the remaining species are (manitobiana, antica, borealis, noveboracensis). Helochara communis is a common small green species of late spring found in marshes. I have collected the black-and-yellow striped Tylozygus bifida from a weedy field but the specimen has been lost.

JASSINAE
Jikradia olitorius is an uncommon ecotonal species. It probably feeds upon a woody plant (sassafras in the literature).

ATHYSANINAE
Most of the leafhoppers collected at Cedar Creek fall into this large subfamily. More than 70 species have been collected. The bulk of them from old fields. They will be discussed by diet and roughly in order of abundance. First we consider the Grass Feeders.

Without question the most abundant leafhopper of CCESR Old Fields is Doratura stylata. This brachypterous species with raccoon band across the face is an introduced species that is abundant from June to mid-July in fields containing bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Diplocolenus configuratus and Quantas ?sayi are two other common to abundant species of early summer in a spectrum of mesic grassy fields. Another common introduced species is the large Athysanus argentarius. It is widespread, but most common in fields containing brome (Bromus inermis). Psammotettix lividellus fluctuates in abundance from year to year in similar fields. Relatively common but confined to prairie containing Little Bluestem (Schizacheurium scoparium) is Laevicephalus unicoloratus. A few other species in this or a closely related genus may also occur, but they were not routinely differentiated. They include Laevicephalus ?sylvestris, Arthaldeus pascuelis, and Sorhoanus bidentatus. Less common grass/sedge feeders not necessarily restricted to fields include: Chlorotettix 5spp (unicolor, balli, viridius, galbanatus, lusorius) and Cicadula 6spp (melanogaster, smithii, mellus, eruca, straminea, cyperacea) are grass/sedge feeders, but only C. unicolor achieves some abundance in fields. Members of the genus Cicadula are more at home in marshy environs. The genus Commellus (3 spp) contains some colorful species that are grass specialists. C. comma can be common in fields containing Quack Grass (Agropyron repens), C. colon is an uncommon species found on Porcupine Grass (Stipa spartea) in xeric fields and C. sexvittata feeds on xx and has been taken in small numbers from numerous fields. The genus Flexamia (4 spp?) are prairie grass specialists and are quite uncommon. They include: F. sandersi? (Andropogon gerardi?), F. abbreviata (Bouteloua hirsuta), F. areolata (Eragrostis spectabilis), and F. stylata? (xx).

Without doubt the most abundant Forb Feeder is Macrosteles fascifrons. Apparently this species does not overwinter here but flies up each summer from more southerly latitudes. By Fall large populations of this slender green species build up on a variety of Asteraceae in old fields. Other common forb feeders? of old fields include Endria inimica and Exitianus exitiosus. Populations are largest in late summer primarily in dry weedy fields. Other common, though less abundant genera of Forb Feeders include Scaphytopius (2+ spp) and Phlepsius/ Paraphlepsius (4+spp). Scaphytopius acutus occurs on Solidago clones in old fields. Scaphytopius cuprescens? is found in bogs. Phlepsius irroratus is the most common field species in this genus. Tentative IDs for the others are: P. fulvidorsum, P. solidaginis, P. umbrosus. The genus Scleroracus (3+ spp) also contains forb specialists. S. osborni (Solidago?) is common in a few fields, S. cornicula (Vaccinium?) and S. striatula occur in bogs and open woodland? Extrusanus oryssus and Streptanus aemulans are relatively uncommon in old fields (diet??). Other uncommon to rare Forb Feeders? of old fields include: Polyamia 4+spp (obtecta, compacta, caperata, weedi), Deltocephalus 3+spp (gnarus? flavicosta, sp), Norvellina 2spp (chenopodii, novica), Rosenus 2spp (cruciatus, rostratus), Mesamia 2spp (ludovicia, nigridorsum), Athysanella sp, Driotura gammaroides, Neocoelidia tumidifrons, Texananus sp, Fitchana vitellina... Forb feeders more common in savanna and woodland include: Osbornellus2 spp (consors, auronitens), Scaphoideus 3 spp (immistus, littoralis, pullus), Eutettix2 spp (querci, lurida), Idiodonus kennicotti,Colladonus clitellarius, Amblysellus curtisii.

Uncommon species of marshes? diet unknown include:Limotettix striola, Graminella nigrifrons

BALCLUTHINAE
Nesosteles neglectus is a relatively common species found in a variety of fields (associated with Koeleria cristata). It fluctuates considerably in abundance from year to year.Balclutha impicta andBalclutha punctata are woodland species infrequently collected in savanna regions.

TYPHLOCYBINAE
Empoasca fabae is the most common member of this group taken in old fields. This small green species is abundant on Asteraceae and other forbs in a variety of fields.Dikraneurasp. has been taken in a few fields as has Forcipata loca . Species in the large genera Erythroneura(5+spp) and Typhlocyba(5+spp) feed on tree foliage in woodlands. This group has not been adequately surveyed.
 
 


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